Of all the water in the world, only 3% is fresh water and only 0.3% of the fresh water is available to humans (Dillenback, n.d.). However, it is difficult to find pure and clean water nowadays for safe consumption. It is a fact that Australia is the driest inhabited continent on Earth. This is due to some causes, the strongest reason being the climate phenomenon known as Southern Oscillation which can go to the extreme of El Nińo which leads to Australia being in the state of drought. The Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology defines drought as a prolonged, abnormally dry period when there is not enough water for users’ normal needs.


Figure 1: River discharge by continent (excluding Antarctica) related to rainfall supply
(Simpson 1993)

In Sydney, there have been a few recorded periods of state of drought in Sydney’s catchment areas.The water supply levels had rang the alarm bells being seriously low at the point of having only 33.8% of available water storage.
A much efficient idea in preventing the possibilities of having shortage of water is needed for long term benefits such as management systems as a wholly system in controlling the water supply. There are a number of strategies in managing the water efficiently, however, this thesis will focus mainly on the pressure and leakage management programs as the management system will be using pressure as the measure to manage the flow of the water supply.

More information can be found in page Water Pressure Management System .

Geographical Information System (GIS)

This thesis project was conducted on the main purpose that is to emphasize the wide use of Geographical Information System in problem solving, monitoring and analysis where the position information is concerned. There are various and countless applications which might need GIS to efficiently solve for, and that assessing hot spots for critical water pressure value performed in this project being one of the many applications. Although this project involved a totally different area of study than surveying and spatial information system,
which is hydraulics, the further aspect of hydraulics would not be touched.
The management system refers to the overall system which will be built as a database system with geographical information planted with physical entities entered in it – the basic principle of geographical information system. The capabilities of geographical information system made it feasible to monitor the range of water pressure in the study area and determining the affected properties with value exceeding the standard value threshold regulated for water pressure.

The GIS software used for the purpose of this project is ArcGIS®. More information of the software can be found in page Technical Aspect.