Reference Materials

Links to virtual museums and relevant websites containing information on historical surveying instruments:


The Lady Denman Heritage Complex

Dent Street, Huskisson, NSW 2540, Australia

Scientific Instrument Collection

Study Collection of Kern & Co,
im Stadtmuseum Aarau

Schlossplatz 23, 5000 Aarau, Switzerland

Auctioneers of Fine Art, Antiques
and Sculpture

Willoughby, Ohio, USA


Virtual Archive of Wild Heerbrugg


Maison du Geometres

79, Cours Charlemagne
69002 Lyon, France

Macleay Museum

University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia


Scientific Instrument Collections in Australian Universities
(by J. Holland) 

 National Technical Museum


Instruments of Science and Technology

Society for the History of Geodesy in Switzerland

Museum of Scientific Instruments

University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada, 

Science Museum

Exhibition Road, South Kensington,
London, England

Förderkreis Vermessungstechnisches Museum e.V.

Museum fur Kunst und Kulturgeschichte
Hansastrasse 3, D-44012
Dortmund, Germany

The Whipple Museum of the History of Science

Cambridge, England


International Institution for the History of
Surveying and Measurement  

Antique Surveying Instruments at 'oobject' (blog/directory) 

Hewlett-Packard Archive
(for catalogues, journals, links)

The National Museum of Science & Industry


Historic Scientific Instruments: A Guide to Resources
(by J. Holland)

Conservatoire National des Arts et Metier

60 rue Réaumur - Paris 3rd arrondissement

Museum of the History of Science

Old Ashmolean Building
Broad Street, Oxford, England

Surveying Antiques (Buying &Selling, Instruments,
Catalogues & Manuals)

Canada Science and Technology Museum

1867 St. Laurent Blvd.
Ottawa, ON K1G 5A3, Canada

Land Survey Photo Gallery

The History of Surveying
(Queensland Dept of Environment and Resources)

Institution of Civil Engineers Museum Scotland

School of the Built Environment
Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS


Council of Australian University Museums and Collections (CAUMAC)

Deutsches Museum

Museumsinsel 1, 80538 Munich, Germany

Smithsonian National Museum of American History: Surveying & Geodesy

Virtual Museum of Surveying (Surveyors Historical Society)


Books on historical surveying instruments:

  • Bennett, J. A. (1987) 'The Divide Circle - A History of Instruments for Astronomy, Navigation and Surveying'. Phaidon-Christie's Limited, Oxford, England
  • Kiely, Edmond (1947) 'Surveying Instruments, their H istory and Classroom Use'. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College Columbia University, New York, USA
  • Minow, Helmut (1990) 'Historical Surveying Instruments - List of Collections in Europe'. 2nd edition, Verlag Chmielorz, Wiesbaden, Germany
  • Richeson, A. W. (1966) 'English Land Measuring to 1800: Instruments and Practice'. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA
  • Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AV-CC). (1996) 'Cinderalla Collections – University Museums and Collections in Australia'. Report of the University Museums Review Committee, ISBN 1 86408 046 9 (available from the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee, GPO Box 1142, Canberra ACT 2061, Australia, x+225 pages.